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EMBROIDERED AND 
LACED LEATHERWORK 

BY 

ANN MACBETH 




METHUEN & CO. LTD. LONDON 



EMBROIDERED 
AND LACED 
LEATHERWORK 



HANDBOOK of sug- 



^ gestions and illustrations 
for the laced and embroidered 
leather articles now so much 
in demand among women's 
institutes and other bodies 
where simple handicrafts are 
practised. The author has 
endeavoured to illustrate work 
in which no large outjfit of 
tools nor great technical skill 
arc necessary, and to give to 
the work artistic style which 
is too often lacking in these 
productions. 



METHUEN & CO. LTD. LONDON 




GLASGOW SCHOOL OF ART 




191 088 



Digitized by tlie Internet Arcliive 
in 2015 



littps://arcliive.org/details/embroiderecllacedOOmacb 



EMBROIDERED AND LACED 
LEATHER WORK 



BY THE SAME AUTHOR 



THE PLAYWORK BOOK 
SCHOOL AND FIRESIDE CRAFTS 
{With May Spence) 



EMBROIDERED AND 
LACED LEATHER 
WORK 

BY 

ANN MACBETH 



WITH 140 ILLUSTRATIONS 



THIRD EDITION 




METHUEN & CO. LTD, 
36 ESSEX STREET W.G. 
LONDON 



First Published . . . . January loih 1^24 
Second Edition . , . . May 1925 
Third Edition . , , . , ^930 



PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN 



INTRODUCTION 



IT is truly said that " there's nothing like leather," and because it is so 
unlike all the woven materials which are used in the handiwork of the 
average woman, I have drawn out these suggestions and designs to 
help those who are interested in working in this very beautiful material. 
I have also aimed at such applications of the work as will demand no pre- 
vious technical instruction — no knowledge of drawing or training in design 
— and no expensive materials are introduced — so that the many bodies of 
women who are taking up such handicrafts as this may feel that it is entirely 
within their power to achieve an artistic result without making mere 
mechanical copies of things already seen. I have left out entirely any 
reference to embossed and modelled leather, both on account of its expense 
and because, to do it well, a very thorough knowledge of drawing and applied 
design is necessary, and because, to carry it through successfully, a book- 
binder's outfit and skill are generally needed. 

Therefore if this little book should fall into the hands of the expert 
worker in leather, she must bear in mind that the suggestions are not meant 
for her, but for those, who in Women's Institutes, Girls' Clubs, Young 
Women's Christian Associations, Continuation and other Secondary Schools, 
have neither the time nor the opportunity to practise the craft in its more 
accomplished forms. It is meant to help the uninstructed to realize what 
artistic results can be got by simple means. 

One thing I would plead for, above all others, in this work, is that each 
worker, having learned how to handle successfully her simple tools with 
the most earnest and devoted care, should strive with equal earnestness 
and devotion to think, and to think and persistently think for herself about 
it ; not to depend upon the thoughts and ideas of teachers and others, 

V 



vi EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



but to make her own shapes and patterns and decorative devices in what- 
ever simple ways she can. Every normal man or woman can use their 
intelligence in this way if they have the interest and the will to do it. We 
are, on the whole, a very lazy generation about thinking for ourselves : 
we are too much the product of education through books, and not through 
the practical doing of sheer necessity. Genius, so-called, is not, by any 
means, eternal patience, if by that we merely stand and wait ; it is the 
result of a strenuous and persistent working in our minds, of setting our 
whole souls to work to achieve a thing, a praying without ceasing till 
the desired result is attained. Genius is also a persistent courage and 
confidence and faith in our own inward light, which is the creative power 
within us, and we rarely set to work in this way without achieving some 
encouraging result, though it may not always be the one we set out to find. 
It is a poor excuse for anyone to say, in face of a difficulty, " But I am 
not a genius," rather, rise up and try to be one. I would urge, therefore, 
on those who control classes in this or any other form of handicraft, that 
after directing pupils in the use of their tools, and explaining preliminary 
whys " and " wherefores," they leave the workers as far as is possible 
to plan for themselves the shapes and constructive decoration. This 
will enable them to think in their material and gives them far more inde- 
pendence when left to themselves. 

Another thing which should be earnestly recommended to workers 
and teachers in handicrafts is to observe and give careful consideration to 
the prices at which handiwork is sold on the market. The many industrious 
workers in Women's Institutes are particularly guilty of want of thought 
in this matter, partly because they entirely forget that work done in leisure 
time ought to count as work done in working time, and they too often 
charge so low a price that it barely covers the cost of materials ; and partly 
because they do not realize that the rate of pay for hand-made articles is 
quite a different thing from that for machine-made articles. They also 
should bear in mind that an artistically made thing cannot often be hurried 
or turned out in vast quantities, and therefore its quality of " uniqueness " 
and the personality of a clever worker in its construction gives it also an 
added economic value. 



INTRODUCTION 



vii 



It would be an interesting thing if various rural Women's Institutes, 
or similar workers, could take up in different localities certain different 
types of articles and specialize in these — get a good name for them and 
bring about a demand on the market for them — just as in old days Buck- 
ingham and Bedfordshire became famous for lace, and Dorset for smocks. 
At the present time it is more usual for different places to be celebrated 
for certain sweetmeats or cakes than for any local handicraft done by its 
women. 

To suggest all the applications and directions to which the worker in 
simply made leather articles may turn is impossible and unnecessary, but 
the writer hopes that this little book may set clever workers' brains moving 
in various ways, and that many unexpected and excellent achievements 
may result from it. The tools and materials used in the work illustrated 
in the diagrams are as few as can be. A good punch plier first and fore- 
most ; a punch for press studs ; sharp, long scissors ; large chenille needles, and 
a ruler, are the only tools used. For stitching, the possibilities are endless. 
There is no limit to what might be used, so long as the result is, first, suited 
to its purpose, and second, pleasing to look at. In general, however, the 
work has been done with the thick makes of artificial knitting silk of the 
duller and more woolly sorts. Real silk is excellent for strength, but 
many workers' hands are roughened with household work and cannot 
handle it well. The thick cotton threads made by Clark & Co., Paisley, 
are also admirable. 

The various kinds of inexpensive leather are sold by many firms now- 
adays, and patterns can be got from all of those who advertise in " Home 
and Country " and similar magazines. 

It is a good thing for the teacher of any class in leather work of this 
kind to look round the drapers' shops in any big town for narrow braids 
and pipings of out-of-date varieties and buy up full cards at wholesale 
prices ; all sorts of beautiful embroidered and crocheted buttons too can 
be got at times very cheaply, and introduced as trimmings to the work. 
Beautiful old-fashioned metallic braids and bindings, and narrow ribbons 
can all play their part in decorating leather. 

It is not nearly sufficiently realized that fitness in the construction 



viii EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 

of any piece of work for its ultimate use is one of the best means towards 
artistic quality, and when you can make the actual construction at the 
same time a suitable decoration you will rarely need any superfluous or 
added ornament. 

As a last word, let me repeat that in planning and cutting and making 
up any article of leather, however small, the worker must, above all things, 
be most accurate and careful — too much care cannot be given to this in 
making and planning patterns. In this, more perhaps than in most handi- 
crafts, holds good the law, " whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with 
thy might," even down to the smallest button or trimming. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

No. 1. Baby's Shoes 

No. 2. Buttons 2 

No. 3. Baby's Shoe . . , 3 

No. 4. Punching, Edging, Binding and Seaming .... 4 

No. 5. Bootee .......... 7 

No. 6. Slipper . , , .9 

Nos. 7-10. Slipper 9 

No. 11. Moccasins 10 

No. 12. A Bobbin-case . , , 11 

No. 13. A Folding Work-box - 12 

No. 14. A Four- sectioned Hat ....... 14 

No. 15. Needle WEAVING as Decoration for Leather . . .18 

No. 16. An Embroidered Hat 19 

No. 17. A Hat with a Wide Brim 20 

No. 18. A Baby's Bonnet , 22 

No. 19. A Motor Bonnet ...... .23 

No. 20. Tassels and Rosettes 26 

No. 21. A Tea Cosy . 28 

No. 22. Another Cosy 29 

No. 23. A Two-sided Cosy 30 

No. 24. A Strapped Seat for a Stool or Chair . . . . 30 

No. 25. A Glove Case 31 

No. 26. A Handkerchief Sachet ....... 32 

No. 27. A Nightdress Sachet . . 33 

1 ix 



X EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 

Page 

No. 28. A Brttsh-and-comb Bag ....... 34 

No. 29. A Little Hand-Bag or Hanging Pocket . . . .35 

No. 30. Cords 36 

No. 31. Serbian Cord 37 

No. 31a. a Four-sided Bag 39 

No. 32. A Shopping Bag with Pockets 40 

No. 33. A Bag with Hinged Clasp 42 

No. 34. A Case for Treasury Notes ...... 43 

No. 35. A Hand-bag with Inside Pockets . . . . .44 

No. 36. A Square Cushion 46 

No. 37. A Round Cushion ........ 47 

No. 38. A Sleeveless Jerkin 48 

No. 39. A Baby's Coat and Cap 49 

No. 40. A Chamois Waistcoat with Sleeves . . .... 49 

No. 41. Gloves . . 51 

No. 42. Designs for the Points of Gloves 55 

No. 43. Hat and Head Bands ....... 67 

No. 44. Girdles 59 

No. 45. A Blotter and a Writing-case 60 

Materials fob Stitching Leather Articles 62 



EMBROIDERED AND LACED 
LEATHER WORK 



No. 1. BABY'S SHOES 



These are to be cut in any heavy gloving leather, or a good quality of 
washing chamois. The best plan, if you have no pattern, is to outline 
carefully the sole of the child's foot, as in 1 A. Then, marking the extreme 
points of the heel and toe, measure the outline by carefully laying a thread 
along it. Now, allowing about f -inch extra for easing in the upper portion 



at the toe, draw Fig. 1 B on stiff, brown paper, doubled, so that the fold 
comes iip the heel. If the leather is thin, both soles and uppers may be 
pasted down on thin flannel or other material before making up. Now take 
the fold at the heel of the upper portion, and with a strong thread of Fil 
d'Ecosse (No. 18), or other cotton of suitable thickness and colour, begin to 
stitch the sole and upper together with a small stitch like fine tacking, taking 
care to watch both sides of the seam all the time, and to push the needle 
straight through from front to back with the greatest care, to keep stitches 
straight and even. When you come to the point marked a on Fig. 1 B, curve 
the sole sharply over the left forefinger so that the upper portion takes a wider 




1 



4 EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



front portion must be eased in at the toe for about 1 inch on either side of 
the extreme point — in order to make the toe rounded and roomy. The 
holes for the tie or latchet may be neatly stitched round, if need be, with 

buttonholing. Any superfluous over- 
lapping of the fronts may be cut 
away after they have been neatly 
stitched to the backs at the dotted 
lines — the back portion being out- 
side. The ends of the back with 
lace holes should almost meet above 
the instep when on the child's foot. 
Cords or ribbons may be used for ties through the lace holes. These 
slippers should be lined if they are of thin leather. 

No. 4. PUNCHING, EDGING, BINDING AND SEAMING 

It is perhaps best, at this point, to give a few directions as to punching 
leather, as many beginners are extremely unfortunate with early efforts, 
for lack of care and foresight. When two pieces of leather are to be laced 
or seamed together they must first be set carefully together, edge to edge, 
for punching ; with the dressed sides of leather face to face. After laying 
them exactly into place, take a 
strong needle with tacking thread 
and tack them together with long 
stitches very close to the edge, 
so that the punch holes may be 
inside of the tacking threads. As 
many as six pieces of similar shape 
may be fixed together thus and all 
may be tacked into one block and 
punched at one time, so long as the leather is not too thick. Now punch 
very regularly and neatly, about J-inch in from the cut edge, taking the 
greatest care to keep an even line of holes, and to make the latter equi- 
distant : usually four or five holes to the inch is a good arrangement, unless 
the article is very small. It is a good plan to first mark a line for the holes 





EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 5 



on the undressed side of the leather with a pencil. The worker must lay 
a piece of thick cardboard underneath the leather so that the punch bites 
into this, instead of being blunted by biting on to the metal underneath. 
If making a hat with each side of its sections alike, it is wise to make a dis- 
tinguishing mark, or an extra hole at one side when punching it, so that 
the worker knows that all these marked sides must be fixed together. It 
is difficult to be quite sure of the sides tallying if this is not done, and it 
saves much time and confusion. As a rule workers are inclined to use 
rather too large a point or " bit " when punching such things as hats and 
bags, and their work in consequence suffers from a lack of steadiness and 
firmness and soon loses its shape. No. 2 and No. 3 bits are very much the 
most useful for embroidered leather work, the large points are more suitable 
for lacing with leather thongs. Thongs should be marked on fairly thin, 
strong leather with a ruler, and cut with long and very sharp scissors, 
taking care to make no careless hacks or short cuts. Ends of thongs may 
be joined with strong paste, or firmly but carefully joined with stitching. 

A punch bit may be had that will make a slit hole instead of a round 
hole for the lacing. 

When embroidering hats with silk or other threads and braids, great 
variety can be got by laying contrasting strands, braids, or laces underneath 
the stitches, and this serves an excellent purpose in stiffening and making 
firm the seams and hems. The worker should use her ingenuity and intelli- 
gence in this matter, as in leather work the whole decoration and interest 
of the work lies in clever and artistic enhancement of the structural lines. 
If this is well done no other decoration should be necessary. 

Eyelet holes and press studs both require a special punch, after the 
ordinary one has been used to make the preliminary holes. The one for 
eyelets is simple and explains itself, having a projecting nipple which fits 
into a depression and flattens out the metal ring for the eyelet. The punch 
for press studs has two or three movable parts, both the upper and lower 
arms requiring different pieces. The " button " portion of the stud and the 
recessed portion each require two parts, one inserted below the leather and 
one above. The upper, or recessed portion, requires a much larger hole 
punched into the leather than does the " button " portion. 



6 EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



After the edges are punched regularly they require some decorative 
binding or stitching, and in this lies most of the constructive decoration 
which gives charm to the work. Here we may introduce colour and rich- 
ness by using braids beneath the stitching, or strips of leather or strands of 




threads in contrasting colours (4A). We may also treat the work in a more 
barbaric but less substantial method by lacing it with thin thongs of suede, 
or, if thick leather is used for the article, it may be laced with a stronger, 
harder thong, either simply crossed over the edge, or button-stitched. 



A-C 



AI> 




Then again a binding of ribbon or braid may be laid over the edge and 
fixed on with a back stitch or a chain stitch into each hole (4 B, C and D). 
The crochet hook also may be brought into use, and is very convenient 




in that it does away with the need for knots or fastening off of threads (4 E). 
It can be used exactly as it is used in the binding of blankets. Seams 
as well as edges may be equally varied and beautified with decorative 
stitches and underlying strands. If the sections to be seamed together are 
to lie flat and be very firm, it is necessary to overlap the edges as in 4 E 



EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 7 



and 4 G, each edge just touching a row of punch holes. The more thick and 
solid the underljdng strand or strapping of seams, the more firm does it 
make the work. 

If a seam is to be made flexible and soft, it is best to let the two edges 
just meet, with no overlap, 



and for this purpose each 
edge is best stitched with 4H 
buttonhole stitch, catching 
up the edge of the first side 
as the second is stitched. 




The seams for gloving leathers are also various, and are not punched. 
The simplest consists of the so-called " running stitch," though in this 
instance it must on no account be " run," but must be carefully done 
by pushing the needle directly from front to back through the double 



material and back again, so that the two sides look alike (I) . Overlapping 
edges may be back- stitched (J), or a close but not too tight button- stitch 
may be applied to either " overlapping " or " edge-to-edge " seams (K). In 
the former case the buttonhole stitches must be set wider apart, and after 
one side is done the position of the work is reversed, and alternate stitches 
set between the first row, so that the buttonholed edge appears at each side 
of the seam. 



This is a particularly comfortable and becoming piece of footgear, and 
may be used either with a bedroom-slipper sole, or with a heavy leather sole 
such as is sold, ready punched for working, at Messrs. Woolworth's stores, or 




^ J 




No. 5, BOOTEE 



8 EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 

it can be done to order by any cobbler, since the preparation of sole-leather 
is somewhat heavy work for the average woman's hands. The four sides for 
the pair of shoes must be paired face to face and tacked together as in 5, 

cutting the line where it is 
fixed to the sole at least a J 
inch larger than the line of 
the sole, so that a portion is 
left for easing into the toe, as - 
in the baby's shoe (No. 1). 
If a specially warm bootee 
is wanted, the leathers may 
be pasted on to warm mate- 
rial after the punching is 
done, or a padded silk lining 
may be put in. This is made 
by using a sheet of cotton wadding cut exactly the same size as the leather 
sides. The wadding must be laid on to silk cut to aUow turnings. Tack 
down these turnings most carefully to the right shape, and then quilt on 
the right side of the silk. After this, 
the padding may be pasted into place 
and the sides fastened to the sole, start- 
iQg the stitching of each side at the 
back of the heel. Turn the lower edge 
of the sides to the inside of the shoe, 
taking care to ease in the extra length 
of the sides for about 1 inch on either 
side of the toe. Now lay a braid, or 
binding, or strap of a contrasting colour 
along the punched edge and commence 
to stitch up the right side of the 
front seam, using a thick thread of 
cotton or artificial silk. (The duller varieties of the latter are best to use 
and do not slip so easily as the more glossy kinds.) If using cotton, Clark's 
flox thread is excellent. Take at least two buttonhole stitches into each 





EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 9 



punch-hole. Go right round the punched edge of the right side of the shoe 
and continue up the left side of the back seam, at the same time catching up 
the opposite stitches of the right side. If a padded lining is used, it must, of 
course, be carefully caught in at each stitch. This is one of the easiest and 
most comfortable shoes to make, and it is particularly becoming to broad, 
short feet, as it gives an appearance of length and slimness. They are much 
warmer than most sHppers of this kind, as they fit close round the ankles. 
They look well with a narrow edge of fur round the edges. 



No. 

The illustrated pattern is 
may be cut separately and in 
various shapes — as suggested 
in 8, 9 and 10 — in which case 
the back and sides may be cut 
in one long strip. The dotted 
line round the toe portion shows 
where the material is to be 
slightly eased or gathered into 
the sole. This is in order to 
give plenty of room for the 
toes. 



6. SLIPPER 

cut in one piece, 



but the front portion 




No. 7. SLIPPER 



This pattern is on the plan of the bootee (No. 5), though it can be cut aU in 

one piece if need be. Note the 
marks for gathering in to the 
sole at the toe. 

Nos. 8 and 9 are sugges- 
tions for decorations for the 
toes of sHppers, and consist of 
successive pieces of differently coloured leather. In No. 8 the semi- 




10 EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



circular piece underneath is neatly and finely fringed, and the other 
little tongues stitched on the top of this, each succeeding one smaller than 
the other, so that the different colours are seen below each edge. 

No. 9 is of two doubled wedge-shaped pieces fringed finely at the fold 




and stitched into place with large firm stitches in harmonious colours. 

No. 10 shows the toe of a slipper which has been pierced to show another 
colour which is pasted on behind. This may be put on either in leather, 
or in silk or other material, but the backing must be cut to exactly the 
same outside measurements as the outside portion, otherwise it will be 
liable to curl away and loosen with use. 

No. 11. MOCCASINS 

It is impossible to gi^-e here all the varieties of this shape, and for the 
sake of clearness we have used the simplest. This shoe is not at all an 

easy one to make neatly, and though large 
quantities of them are made in this country 
now, it is rare to see one made with any ap- 
proach to the beauty and skill of the real 
Canadian moccasins. These latter are always 
made with extremely flexible leather, of what- 
ever kind it be, and the gathering is fine and 
extremely regularly and smoothly laid on to 
the instep-piece. To make a shape, set your 
paper under the foot and draw the shape of the 
sole, keeping both sides approximately symmetrical. Now draw another 
line about 1 inch out from the toe all round the front portion of the foot, 




EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 11 



and draw a straight line, from the end of the curve round the front of the 
foot to a line drawn about 1 inch back of the heel, and mark as in the pattern 
11 A, a tiny semicircle with its base exactly the width of the heel. This 
is to act as a lappet over the heel portion 11 B. Cut an oval or egg- 
shaped piece of leather to lie about J-inch in from the outline of the sole, 
and to reach up to the instep, 11 A. Round the lower half of this the sole 
portion is to be finely gathered in, with regular gathering stitches, not 
too tightly pulled up, so that the toepiece may lie flat and evenly between 
the gathers. Continue stitching in the toepiece for a short distance beyond 




the gathered portion, so that the loose " tongue " may be about one-third 
of the length of the toepiece. Now bind or embroider the free edges of 
the toepiece and the ankle and the back of the shoe. The back seam and 
the lappet must be neatly and inconspicuously hemmed over. The toe- 
piece may be embroidered with raffia, beads, silk, or cotton, or applications 
of other colours of leather ; fur may be laid round the ankle of the shoe, or 
a pendant fringe of leather may hang all round ; there are, in fact, many 
variations in the treatment of it. As these shoes are inclined to be chilly 
under foot it is well to line them with fur or flannel. In the Canadian ones 
the lining is always made with separate gathers, but it is very difficult to 
put this in so evenly as the Indian workers do it. 

No. 12. A BGBBIN-CASE 

This must be planned to fit the reels, two large and two small, or three 
graded pairs, so that the shape must be cut out first in stiff brown paper, 
very accurately ; having every angle carefully fitted so that the bobbins 
lie closely and firmly in place. It is well to cut the bottom section (marked 
A in the diagram), in stiff cardboard, and paste this into place on the inside 



12 EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



of the leather in order to keep the row of reels more steady. Now, after 
marking on the paper pattern exactly where the holes in the reels touch 
the upright sides of the case, get an eyelet punch and insert " eyelets '* 
along both sides of the leather. After this, punch lacing holes all round 
the case with a No. 1 or 2 punch-bit, punching both edges of the corner 




contrasting colour of leather may be laid along each edge. A braid or 
strand of coloured silks sufficiently thick to fill in the space between the 
holes and the edge under the lacing or stitching may be used if preferred. 

The example illustrated was laced over with thin silk braid such as 
our great-grandmothers used for braiding designs on their dresses, but 
thick silk or a fine thong of leather do equally well. For this bobbin-case 
it is necessary to use a very stiff leather. 

No. 13. A FOLDING WORK-BOX 

For this we first cut out six equal sides in stiff millboard, about 4 or 
5 inches square, as required. These must be absolutely accurately and 
evenly cut. Now lay these in an even line on the piece of leather about 
J inch apart, and carefully mark round each with the sharp point of the 
scissors. Next punch holes (about four to the inch) up each of the narrow 
spaces between the squares and round the top on the two sides of the seam. 
A projecting flap of about | of an inch must be left along the bottom 



EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 13 



making an angular notch the depth of the flap under every vertical row 
of holes. Now lay all the pieces of cardboard about | inch apart on to 
the wrong side of a piece of silk or other firm but thin material for lining. 
Cut this material with at least 1 inch turning all round, and paste these 




A. r 




turnings over on to the cardboard 
with strong paste or glue, and again 
paste this lining with its cardboard 
side on to the leather. Now, with 
strong, thick, silk thread, buttonhole 
all along the top of the case into the 
punched holes, taking care that each 
stitch shall catch the lining material 
where it is turned over on to the card- 
board. Take a running stitch through 
each row of vertical holes, catching 
both leather and Kning together between the cardboards. 

The lower flap must now be punched between the notches, not quite 
so closely as round the top, and into these holes a draw string is run, of 
silk cord, to match the button-stitching. 

To make the bottom of the box, cut a hexagon in leather, with its six 



14 EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



sides exactly the same width as the sidepieces of the box, cut the same 
shape in cardboard, and cover this with lining also, and after punching 
the leather, button-stitch both lining and leather together. 

It is a good thing to attach the bottom of the box, by a cord, from the 
top of the sides, so that when the bottom is taken out it may not go astray. 
A little leather pocket, and a hanging pincushion, made of leather and the 
lining material, may be hung from two of the side panels, if desired, and a 
bag made of the lining material can also be attached, to hold reels and other 
things. This makes a very convenient case for travelling. If it is made 
with a lid with a deep flap all round, it is an excellent collar-box. It can 
also be made larger and much deeper in proportion, and used as a waste- 
paper box. 

No. 14. A FOUR-SECTIONED HAT 

This is one of the easiest hats to make, and at the same time one of the 
most useful, as it folds up quite flat when not in use. To make the shape, 



DlAMeieR OF CIRCLE 




8 Inch DlAM€TeR 




take first the measurements round the head where the line of the brim comes. 
We will assume for convenience that this is 24 inches, and that the height 
of the hat from brim to crown is 9 inches, these are at present approxi- 
mately normal proportions. Take a pair of compasses, and setting their 



EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 15 



points 4 inches apart, draw a circle on brown paper, with a diameter of 8 
inches. This gives approximately the top of the crown. Now extend the 




SHewING HOW THe FOVR SeCTIONS MAY Be CVT M05T 
eCONOMICALLY 0\JT OF Tri€ SKIN: 

compasses to 7 inches, which gives about the depth of the crown, and 
again draw a circle. 



SHewiNG THe FOUR 
SeCTIONS LAID 
TOGeiHeR FOR 
TACKING 



SeCTIONS TACKGD 
^TOGeTriCR AND 
N\ PUNCHCD WITH 

NO 3 PUNCH-BIT 




DReSSCD 
5URFACe5 
FACING IN 
PAIR5 



eXTRA HOLC 
TO SCRVe A5 
GUIDe TO 
PAIRING FOR 
THC SCAIMS. 



lASeCTION OF BRIM 
LINING; 



A third circle must be drawn at 9 inches radius. Now quarter your 
inner circle, and draw a vertical line from the apex of one of the triangles 
2 



16 EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



right through the three circles for a depth of 9 inches. Draw parallel 
vertical lines from the outer angles of the base of the triangle to the 7-inch 
circle. This should give a space on each side of the centre line of 3 inches. 
Then from the 7-inch to the 9-inch radius take a slight curve outward, the 
curve cutting the outer circle at a right angle. Curve away also the angle 
at the inner circle and you have a shape as in diagram 14. 

Diagram 14 A shows the hat 
planned for six sections. The 
essential point is that the shape 
is cut so that the lines between 
the inner circle of the crown and 
the second circle of 7-inch radius 
are vertical, and parallel with the 
centre line which bisects the 
triangle of the crown. The curv- 
ing of the angles at the 4-inch 
and the 7-inch radius is so ar- 
ranged that when the pattern is 
placed on the skin, it may be 
inverted and the edge of the 
second outline be set to fit into 
that of the first one, 
and so on ; this makes 
for economy in cut- 
ting, so long as the 
This hat should be cut 




^ S£AM 
Q TACKGD 

FOR FINAL LACING 
STITCHING 



SCAM ALACCD 
OVER A STRAP OF 
LCATHeR-ORBRAID-OR 
STRAND OF SILK TriROADS 



consistency and surface of the skin permits of it. 
out of the thicker portions of the skin, so that each section should be of 
about the same thickness and pliability. 14 B shows the four sections 
planned out on the skin. 

Now, having cut out the four sections, lay them in pairs with velvet 
sides facing, and tack the whole four into a block, taking the tacking stitches 
within 1-inch of the edge. Inside this punch the holes very regularly, 
and at an even distance of J to J of an inch from the edge. At one of the 
lower corners punch an extra hole, to show that all the four sides so marked 



EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 17 



must be seamed together. This will save much time in counting holes to 
get the two sides of the seams to tally. 

Now cut the lining for the brim from a skin of the same or a contrast- 
ing colour, marking it from the outer curve of the brim to the 7-inch circle. 
If the material permits 
the brim may be cut in 
two instead of four sec- 
tions, and this will save 146 
making seams at every 
quarter of the brim. 

To seam the hat 
together, start at the 
middle of the crown, 
and lay the edges of 
the two sections over- 
lapping each other. In 



14h 



the illustration a leather strap is laid 
under the stitching; but braid or a 
thick strand of threads may be used 
equally easily. It is perhaps easier if 
the two edges are tacked into position 
first. Use a cross-stitch, working down 
and up the seam again. The strap or 
strand must be cut long enough to go up one seam and down the other. 
The stitching of the seams may be varied ; the cross-stitch is perhaps the 
simplest and quickest. 

When the four seams are done tack on the lining of the brim. This 
need not be punched unless it is very thick leather, in which case simply 
punch through the holes on the outer side of the brim after the hning is in 





18 EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



place. Seams in the lining are best stitched with fish-bone stitch. After 
all the seams are finished, the binding of the brim must be done. Here again 
the underlying strap or strand must be used. Sometimes a different one 
may be used on the under side of the brim from that on the top. The best 
stitch for the edge is buttonhole stitch, but a cross-stitch may be used 
instead. Elaborations at the edge of the brim may be made, two rows of 
wool chenille give a pretty, furry effect, or a very narrow edge of fur might 
look well, but the worker must bear in mind that whatever is used must 
stand rain. 14 H shows the hat completed ; a silk lining must be run on 
to the edge of the brim lining, and gathered up under the crown. The 
hat may be further ornamented with rosettes of fringed leather, or if suit- 
able a small bunch of larch cones or some such trimming looks very well. 

No. 15. NEEDLEWEAVING AS DECORATION FOR LEATHER 

This is one of the most effective and suitable decorations for leather, 
since it can be worked entirely on a warp of stitches above the surface of 
the leather. Leather will not stand close masses of stitching upon its sur- 




face. The warp must be made of long stitches of double thread between 
two opposite sets of punch holes, and as it is important that these holes be 
absolutely opposite and equally spaced, it is well to rule lines on the leather 
across the border to be covered, with a sharp tool before punching. 



EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 19 



Use a double thread for the warp so that, if need be, the two threads 
can be separated into different blocks of weaving. This obviates too many- 
wide holes between the blocks. 

The method of working is simple, and is merely elaborated darning : 
threads must be fastened off and started by running the needle down inside 
a column of the weft, along the warp thread and cutting off the thread 
where it emerges again. 

To start the first thread lay it along a warp thread and work over it. 
Fig. 15 shows various stitches, one over five warp threads in a solid square, 
another working on two warps for a certain distance and then dropping one 
thread and taking up another, so as to form a diagonal series of " steps." 
The next is worked with two needles alternately, running in different colours 
of thread. Care must be taken to see that the two threads interlock at 
each end of the line of stitches, in order to hold firmly into place. The 
next figure shows the pairs of warp stitches separated in places to make 
little holes between. A pretty effect can be got by weaving large surfaces 
in this way, planning little groups of four holes close together at intervals 
in the weaving. 

No. 16. AN EMBROIDERED HAT 

Another hat in four sections. The method of seaming is as in No. 
14, but here the brim is made separately. The crown is embroidered with 
needleweaving in which the warp threads radiate from the four or five 
punch-holes nearest the centre of the crown. When starting the weaving 
begin at the centre of the crown and divide the warp stitches at first into 
two groups and make a stitch over each group till the stitches grow wider, 
when they may be sub-divided into more weft stitches as they radiate 
outwards. The outer edge of the centre is finished with a " petal- stitch " 
from each punch-hole. 

The brim is entirely covered with needleweaving. When the needle- 
work is finished, run the lower edge of the brim to the lower edge of the 
crown with strong, even, running stitches, and turn in the edges under a 
silk lining. 



20 EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



The upper edge of the brim is buttonholed over a strand of silks. 
Dull, artificial silks are used for this hat. 




No. 17. A HAT WITH A WIDE BRIM 



This hat is more difficult to plan than No. 14 or No. 16, and needs 
more care in the punching. The oval crown must be about the same in 
circumference as the girth of the head where the brim is fixed in. Take 
this measurement, and along a piece of string of the exact length draw a 
slightly curving line. Then about 4| inches below this lay the string again — 



EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 21 



following the exact curve of the first line — but making the second line 
about an inch or 1 J inch longer. This gives the side piece round the head. 
The curve of the brim must measure exactly the same in length as the lower 
edge of the side piece, but the amount of curve given to this is the difficult 
thing to determine. Roughly speaking, if you take the measure of the 
girth of the head as threequarters of a circle, it will give about the right 
section for the brim, which must be considerably less than a full circle in 
order to make it turn up properly. The outer radius of this circle should 



17 




be drawn about 3J inches outside the radius of the inner one. Two such 
brims must be cut, the under one may be of a contrasting colour from the 
outside of the hat. 

The side must be carefully and closely tacked round the crown before 
punching the holes about J inch in from the edge. See that there is enough 
extra length in the side piece for the ends to overlap about J inch. After 
punching, undo the tacking threads and lay the edges of the crown outside 
those of the sides and proceed to seam them together, laying under the 
stitches some contrasting strap or braid. Two button-stitches into every 



22 EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



hole makes, perhaps, the firmest seam, but various decorative arrangements 
are possible. 

The upper and the under brim must now be tacked together 
and punched, and finished with a decorated edge. Hem down the over- 
lapping end of the side piece as finely and invisibly as possible and do the 
same with the two brim sections, and tack them into place on the head- 




piece till the hat has been tried on. The outer curve of the brim may be 
steadied and made tighter by gently pulling the ends of the strapping under 
the embroidered edge before its ends are cut and tucked out of sight between 
the brim and its lining. If the hat fits correctly after tacking it, it may 
be ironed with a fairly cool iron, using a cloth between the leather and the 
iron. After this, stitch firmly together and line the hat with soft silk. 

No. 18. A BABY'S BONNET 

This is planned for washing suede in white or cream, but can equally 
well be made in a fairly thin quality of Persian velvet. The back portion 
should measure in height about two-thirds of the width of the front portion, 
but it will be necessary to cut a pattern in calico and try it on first to get 
a good fit. The straight line of the front part must exactly fit, without 
gathers, to the curve round the back part. The back should be set with 
its edge overlapping the front, and tacked into position. Then with a 
coloured thread of Clark's flox, or coton a broder, buttonhole stitch 
it in regular pairs all round. The pattern of olive branch should be 
marked out by two rows of dots pencilled carefully and regularly aU 



EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



round before any sewing is begun. Now take a binding of lingerie tape 
or ribbon and tack it also into place. It should be about | inch wide and 



I8a 





must be neatly gathered 
in round the curves of 
the front of the bonnet. 
In the original this 
binding was of clear, 
bright yellow and was 
fixed on with tiny, 
yellow beads, but 
French knots made 
with a single twist of 
the thread round the 
needle do equally 
well. 

18a. The leaves of 

the olive branch are sewn in petal-stitch and the stem is in chain-stitch. 

No. 19. A MOTOR BONNET 

This is a particularly becoming bonnet and can be very variously 
decorated, though for clearness the diagram illustrates a simple treatment. 
The crown has a diameter of about 7 inches and should be circular. The 
points of the diameter marked x show the centre front and the centre 
back, while the two points marked V show where the front portion and 



EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



TACK FRONT "A- TO CROWN "B" 
ALONG LINC MARKeD » « « » m .. 
TACK BACK " C " TO CROWN "B* 

ALONG LINC MARKCD 

B£GINNINQ Trie TACKING IN CACH 
CA5€ BY LAYING THC CGNTRC 
F0LD5 TO POINTS " X " 

PUNCH CARerULLY ABOUT 

FROM Trie eoees 

PUNCH ON "C" ALONG LING... 
& ALONG CURVeO eOGC OF BRIM 




TO Trie CROWN 



V2 FRONT "A " 




EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 25 



the back meet. If these two portions of the crown be measured, their 
circumference, plus a little extra for turnings, will give the length of both 
front and back portions where they join the crown. Of the front portion, 
19 A, only half is drawn, as also the back C (which must be cut from a thin 
portion of the skin), and the brim D. 

Before punching, tack the front A into place on the crown, fix it very 
firmly and close to the edge of the leather, and fix the back portion C likewise. 
The convex curve at the ends of the back must lie over the front and must 
also be tacked down. Now punch all round the crown and round the ends 
of the back as they lie over the front, keeping the holes very evenly spaced. 




Undo the tacking round the front of the crown first, and lay the crown 
underneath it, taking care that the holes are correctly placed as punched. 
When the front is in place unpick the back and place it also in position 
and commence your final embroidery stitches. As illustrated, the crown 
is buttonholed down, but this is optional. Carry the same stitching round 
the curved ends of the back to the lower rim. 

The curved edge of the brim is the portion to decorate in this bonnet. 
The brim itself may be of a different colour from the bonnet or may have 
a wide |-inch or even a 1-inch border of a contrasting leather, cut to fit 
its curve. In the illustration the edge of the brim is simply buttonholed 
like the rest of the hat, over a contrasting braid, but a narrow strip of 



26 EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



leather is laid inside the buttonholing and cross-stitched into place. The 
back portion of the hat must have a casing at the lower edge of some suit- 
able ribbon or braid ; if this is of leather it becomes very much marked 
with rubbing of the neck and soon looks greasy. The brim must be set 
with the front portion overlapping it, and then turned back against the 
head. The hat must be lined with soft silk. 

A large, flat rosette of finely fringed leather should be set behind the 
" ears " of the brim. This may be made of several concentric fringes of 
different colours. 

No. 20. TASSELS AND ROSETTES 

It may be well, at this point, to suggest one or two ways of making 
the tassels and rosettes which add so much to the decoration of leather 
articles. Tassels may be made of artificial silk (real silk, unless very much 
twisted, ruffles up too much) or cotton, or wool, or leather finely fringed. 
They are very simple things to make, and the diagram shows one made in 
two colours. First wrap threads of silk or wool round the fingers or round 
a piece of card to the depth required for the longest portion of the tassel. 
Then thread the end of the silk through a large-eyed needle, and wrap it 
round the end of the loop several times, and fasten off firmly and cut the 
loose end of the loop. Now make a rather shorter loop of another colour 
and fix it firmly above the fastenings of the first and cut it. Next take the 
fastening- thread through the head of the tassel, and bring it out a short 
distance down the loops, and arrange the threads of the upper loop so that 
they fall equally all round the tassel ; wrap the fastening-thread round 
several times to form a " neck," and fasten off. This " neck " may now 
be buttonholed closely with silk of another colour, and a heavy thread 
may now be wrapped round the head " and button-stitched over in groups 
of stitches with a space between, as in 20 E, till the whole head is covered 
in. Other variations of stitching may be used in finishing tassels, and 
crochet also may be introduced. Rosettes look best if cut on the folded 
edge of a doubled strip of fairly thin leather. The scissors must be very 
sharp and the fringe cut as finely as possible. The centre of the rosette 
may be made of an embroidered button mould, or a group of small buttons 



28 EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



or beads ; this gives it a very flower- like appearance : or it may be made 
*' thistle-like," with its centre of a longer fringe than its outer wrappings. 
A small fir-cone, or other seed-vessel, with its stem, makes a pretty found- 
ation if a stem is wanted. Stitch the uncut edge of the fringed strip firmly, 
while it is wrapped round and round. If a " calyx " is wanted it may be 
cut as 20 G and fixed on to the outside of the rosette. Threads to fasten 
it by must be fixed beforehand into the centre of the " calyx." 

No. 21. A TEA COSY 

This is cut in four sections, which must be measured so that their 
circumference gives plenty of room round the tea-pot at the base. The 
height of each section should be about one-sixth more than its width at the 
base. Care must be taken that the angle at the apex be either a right 




angle or somewhat less than a right angle, otherwise the top of the cosy will 
drop inwards when the seaming is finished. A lozenge-shaped appHque of a 
contrasting colour of leather may be laid on at the apex, and a band of 
the same round the base. These should be pasted on before punching 
the holes. Quarter-inch straps of leather are laid under the stitching of 



EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 29 



the applique positions, and a J-inch strap over the seams. Silk or fringed 
leather tassels hang from the lower points of the applique patches, while 
a large round pom-pom of finel3^ fringed double leather forms a handle at 
the top. 

No. 22. ANOTHER COSY 

This is cut exactly as the other four-sectioned cosy, but is elaborated 
with needle weaving at the top and at the base. The four sections must 
be laid together before punching and tacked close to the edge. The needle- 
weaving is done in three colours. For directions, see diagram 15. The 
seams are laced with silk cross-stitches over narrow braids, and the cosy 
is finished with a silk tassel at the top. The linings for these cosies are 
easily made by cutting thick pads of 3- or 4-ply of cotton-wool for each 




section to fit the leather sides. Lay these on to a piece of good Chinese 
silk, or a printed tussore (the latter is best as it does not so quickly show 
soiHng). Cut the silk with a 1-inch turning all round and tack this turning 
over on the back of the cotton- wool pad. Put French knots at intervals 
of about 1| inches over the surface of the pad, and lightly slip-stitch the 
four sections together. This makes it easy to unpick and wash the fining. 
Sfip-stitch the inside pads to the bottom of the leather, and firmly catch 
them here and there to the seams to prevent them dropping out of place. 



30 EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 

No. 23. A TWO-SIDED COSY 

The two sides of this cosy are punched at the same time and laid on 
each pad with only a puffed band of gathered silk between. Cut the pads 
about f inch wider all round the semicircle, but not at the base. The flowers 
are worked in needle weaving on radiating warp stitches, with a fringe of 



petal-stitches above ; the leaves are also done in petal-stitch and the stems 
in knot-stitch. The edges are overcast in cross-stitch with thick silk over 
a strand of a contrasting colour. 

The puffing which joins the two pads should be loosely pleated into 
place and the outer sides slip-stitched down on to it. This permits the 
whole lining to be easily taken to pieces and washed or renewed. 

No. 24. A STRAPPED SEAT FOR A STOOL OR CHAIR 

This makes a very beautiful seat for a stool, and is quickly made. In 
the illustration the leather straps are all of the same width, but this is 
in no way necessary, provided the straps are arranged so that two pairs 
of every kind are cut for both warp and weft of the strapping. They 
must be cut from the thicker portions of the skin. The strapping need 
not necessarily cross from side to side underneath the woven top, but may 




EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 31 



be nailed to the underside 
of the top rails of the stool 
or joined very firmly to up- 
holsterers' braid which can 
be carried across below the 
weaving and attached to the 
other end of the strap. 
Once cut, the work is so 
simple that no directions 
are needed. It is best to 
allow a little space between 
each strap, otherwise it be- 
comes difficult to weave in 
the last two or three rows of strapping. 




No. 25. A GLOVE CASE 

This is a very simple case to make, needing very little construction. 
A good firm silk lining is necessary, or one of washing suede. The edges 




32 EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



must be closely punched with the smallest size of punch-bit, and may either 
be bound over with some rich ribbon shot with tinsel, or button-stitched 




25A 

in silk over a gold braid. The straps may either be of leather or of the 
ribbon used for the binding. They must be stitched on before the lining 
is put in. The raw edges of the lining must be caught in beneath the bind- 
ing. Buttons of rolled leather or beads may be used as fastenings^ 

No. 26. A HANDKERCHIEF SACHET 

This is a very simple and easy case to make, and three or four of them 
may be punched out together. The embroidery on the front flap must 
be done first. As illustrated, each daisy is buttonholed round a punch 



-r 

hole (exactly like a large eyelet-hole) and a small stem and two small 
leaves in petal-stitch made below. After the embroidery is done the whole 
piece is lined with either white gloving suede or with silk ; in the latter 
case the raw edges of the silk must be neatly turned in, and tacked outside 



EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 33 



the punch holes round the case. A braid, or strand of threads, may be 
laid under the button-stitching. Care must be taken to see that the sides 
of angles marked with a heavy 
outer line in the diagram are caught 
and seamed together to make the 
box-like shape of the sachet. Under 
the embroidered flap a pad of 
cotton-wool with lavender inside 
may be laid below the silk lining. 



26 A 


1 


: ^ 


















" ' vJ 



No. 27. A NIGHTDRESS SACHET 

This is so easy to plan that no diagram of its shape is necessary. The 
dimensions must vary according to the size desired, but it is well to remind 
the worker that nightdresses very rarely fill up more than one-half of the 
space allowed for them, and they both look better, and are more convenient 
if made much smaller than is usual. 

The decoration on the illustration shows a panel of needleweaving, 




but it could equally well be worked over thin open canvas in cross-stitch, 
the threads of the canvas being withdrawn after the stitching is done. 
A pretty panel of crochet could be done in rich colours to harmonize with 
the leather. After punching the leather the edges may be decorated with 
button-stitching in thick silk — or a binding of ribbon or braid can be laid 
over the edges instead. The gathered ends of the case must be of thin 
rich silk with elastic run into a casing, and all edges of the silk must 



34 EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



be hemmed to the inside of the binding. After this the leather case can 
be neatly seamed, by punching holes with a running stitch through them, 
and the whole body lined with plain silk. 

No. 28. A BRUSH-AND-GOMB BAG 



This must be planned and cut in stiff brown paper first, and tacked 




together to fit the brush and comb which is to go into it. The diagram 
will give an approximate idea of what is necessary. The back and side- 



EMBROIDEKED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 35 



pieces may be planned in one piece as illustrated, but if they do not fit 
well thus they may be made separately. The side-pieces will vary consider- 
ably in proportion for different brushes. The straps for hanging the bag 
up must be firmly fixed in at the first, as also must the little straps on 
the inside of the front portion which hold the comb. The stitching of the 
latter will, of course, show on the outside, and must be covered with needle- 
woven ornament to hide it. Some handsome beads and tassels will make 
a pretty finish to this case. 



No. 29. A LITTLE HAND-BAG OR HANGING POCKET 

This bag is shaped as in diagram 29 B. The long sides must be 
folded at x and tacked together before punching, as these make the seams. 




The tucked-in sides should be ironed with a not very hot iron, so that they 
have a vertical fold turning to the inside of the bag. The edges and the 



36 EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



flap and the seams should be stitched with a thick thread of silk or crochet 
cotton over a strand of a contrasting colour, a braid, or a narrow leather 
strap. The latchet in the illustration has a tiny larch-cone threaded on 
to it as a tassel. This must be bored with a red-hot knitting needle and 



is rather tiresome, involving a great deal of cutting out — unless a die is 
used — but it disposes of a large number of small fragments and cuttings 
of leather not otherwise useful. This strap or chain can be used with 
excellent effect in a medley of colours as a hat band. D is simply two 
straps of thin leather or suede with holes cut at equal intervals and the 
under-strap alternately threaded through the one above it. 



A great deal of expense can be spared, and much better artistic results 
gained if the worker herseK can make the cords she uses, so that they exactly 
match her work. A very simple way of making a twisted cord is illustrated 
in No. 30. In this cord the worker must take a thread, or strand of threads, 
of about one-half to one-third the thickness needed for the finished cord, 
and of rather more than twice the length required. First tie or loop one 
end round a hook on the wall, and the other round a pencil. A quicker 



29 

c 




the thread is run through 
a bead below the tip of 
the cone to prevent it 
coming off. The strap or 
handle is of a doubled 
thong of strong leather 
laced through punch holes 
about J inch apart, with 
a braid or thin leather 
thong and fastened into 
the body of the bag with 
the latter. Alternative 
methods of making orna- 
mental straps are shown 
in D and E. The latter 



No. 30. CORDS 



EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 37 



method is to get somebody else to hold the other end on another pencil, both 
ends being twisted at the same time. The threads must be held absolutely 
taut, between the left hand thumb and first finger close up to the pencil, 
giving the pencil just room to be freely and quickly turned round. This is 
done by using the forefinger of the right hand, and with it the pencil must be 
rapidly tapped round towards the worker and downwards. When the whole 
length of threads show a tendency to kink fold the length into two, putting 




both ends on the same hook or pencil, while still keeping the entire length 
tightly stretched. Now insert the pencil again at the doubled end, and 
catch in the same way, but reverse the movement of the pencil, tapping 
it now downwards and away from the worker. The cord will practically 
twist itself in this direction, and when no further twisting is possible, release 
the ends off the hook and knot it to prevent unravelling. A fuller cord 
can be made by folding three times instead of twice after the first twisting 
— but if this is done a longer set of threads must be used — rather more than 
three times the required length of the cord. Three different colours can 
be used if the first strand is made of three equal lengths of different colours 
knotted together. The folding must then be made at the knots. 

No. 31. SERBIAN CORD 

A very pretty crochet cord can be made on the fingers which is more 
elastic than the twisted cord. The diagram will show the method of work- 



EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



ing better than description. Take two thick threads of different colours 
and knot them together at one end. Take one thread over the first 
finger of the right hand, just above the knot, holding the knot between the 
2 J thumb and second finger 

^"^^'^ with the loose end of the 

thread running inside the 
hand, and out between third 
and fourth fingers (A) : we 
will call this hlack thread. 
Now take the other white 
thread in the left hand and 
pull it tight and slip it inside 
the hand and out between 
third and fourth fingers, and 
insert the left first finger (B) 
through the black loop and 
pick up the white thread 
through the black loop, and 
immediately transfer the 
knot to the left thumb and 
second finger (as in C) the 
right hand simultaneously 
catching the black thread 
and puUing it tight. Now 
the right first finger goes 
through the white loop (D) 
and catches up the hlach 
thread again and Figure A is 
resumed. If a thick thread 
is used there must be about 
five times the length of the final cord allowed for working up, but the 
amount used depends greatly on the relative slackness or tightness of 
the knotting, and on the nature of the thread. 




EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 39 



No. 31 A. A FOUR 
SIDED BAG 



The four sections 
of this bag must be 
cut and laid velvet 
face to velvet face in 
pairs, and the whole 
four tacked together 
before the punching 
is done. If a lining 
is desired it is best 
of some rather thick 
materal which can 
be pasted on to the 
latter. The seams 
and edges may then 
be button-stitched 
with a rich silk 
thread over a strand 
or braid of contrast- 
ing colour, and small rings of 
bone stitched on at each point, 
cord, or a twisted cord should be 
the ends. Handsome tassels 
of the bag and to the knotted 
sliding ring, made by wrapping 
the cords when gathered together, 
wrapping, will give a pretty finish, 
of the bag. 




mother of pearl or stained 
Through these a Serbian 
fixed and caught together at 
should be fixed to the bottom 
end of the cords, while a soft 
several strands of silk round 
and buttonholing over the 
and will close the opening 



40 EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



No. 32. A SHOPPING BAG WITH POCKETS 

This bag must be made of heavy strong Persian Velvet or Basil or 
Morocco. The diagram shows it in a simple form, laced together with 
thin leather thongs ; but it can be greatly elaborated with embroidered 
border at the top of the pocket, in needle weaving, and with buttonholed 
silken edges to the pocket and handle. 

The bag must be cut as in A, and before punching should be ironed 
down so that the tuck-in sides are creased in at the dotted lines. The two 
pockets B must now be tacked together. These look better if they are made 
of a slightly different colour from the bag itself. They may match the 
extra strengthening strap over the handle C, while the narrow strip D 
which covers the ends of the handle straps may either match the bag or be 
in a third contrasting colour. Cut the long wedge-shaped strip C for the 
handle. This may be cut in two pieces and joined in the middle. Cut 
five or six thongs at each end of these in equal widths for about 4 inches 
up from the ends. Open out these thongs, and carefully tack them in place 
on the outside of the pocket-pieces, laying the narrow strip D over the 
ends to cover them. Now with leather thong or a thick silk thread and a 
very strong chenille needle, stitch the pocket into place on the bag. This 
will be somewhat stiff work, as it is not easy to punch holes into the middle 
of a piece of leather so large as this, and therefore only the pocket portion 
will have holes punched in it. Be sure that your stitching catches in the 
thong ends of the handle securely, and that they lie evenly. Now turn the 
bag inside out and stitch down its side seams with a firm strong running 
stitch. Fix the strengthening-strap E on the handle, and stitch over the 
folded-in top edges of the bag. There are many possible variations to 
this bag. The pockets may be put on with fur if it is preferred, or they 
may be embroidered over with decorative stitchery in chain-stitch or appli- 
cations of other leather. The main thing is to see that, when finished, 
the bag hangs in a long wedge-shaped triangle from the point where it 
crosses the arm ; this ensures better balance and prevents certain portions 
having more strain than others when the bag is full. 



EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 41 




42 EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



No. 33. A BAG WITH HINGED CLASP 



When making the shape for this bag the worker must cut the fronts 
with a considerably flatter and wider span at the portion fastened to the 

clasp, than the actual arc 
or span of the clasp itseK 
— for this reason — that if 
it fits exactly the bag is 
too tight at the top to 
admit the hand easily. 
The diagram shows the 
actual shape of the clasp 
by the dotted line, but 
the paper shape for the 
leather sides allows for a 
considerable bulge out- 
wards when it is fixed 
into place. 

The decoration sug- 
gested for this bag is for 
needle weaving, and Lines 
from top to bottom of this 
portion must be ruled as a 
guide for the punched 
holes, allowing for long 
straight stitches from top 
to bottom of the weaving. 
Before punching the holes 
for the seam the side-piece 
B must be carefully and 
closely tacked between the 
two fronts and the punching done after fixing. A strand of silk, or firm 
braid, should be laid under the stitching of the seams, and the edges of 
the fronts should overlap the side-piece; it is best to tack them into 




EMBKOIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 43 



this position before the stitching is begun. Two — or even three — button- 
stitches into each hole makes the prettiest and most secure seam for this 
bag. The lining should be of some printed silk, harmonious in colour 
with the embroidery and the leather. It must be cut the same shape as 
the outside of the bag, allowing extra material for turnings at the seams 
and round the clasp. The fixing in of the bag to the clasp is always 
rather a tiresome business. The top of the bag and its hning must be 
very evenly laid into place and fastened with a strong thread through the 
holes in the clasp. A Httle ribbon trimming or a gathered braid should be 
laid over the stitching on the inside of the clasp. 

A thick cord of silk should be twisted and fastened to the clasp with 
handsome silk tassels. 



No. 34. A CASE FOR TREASURY NOTES 

This is planned to hang like an amulet or pendant round the neck. 
Cut the strip of leather so that Hne A to B is about |-inch longer than a £1 



34 A 


- V 






I ^ : 




; @i 

o o o o e j» o « • • • 







TV 



B 





o 

a 
e 




e 
« 
• 








©Q. t 















7f 



note. The flap must be 1 inch wide. The whole strip 7f X 3| inches. 
The ends of the long strip must first of all have press studs fastened in as 
in the diagram, and these must be arranged that the actual stud and 
its " hole " face to the right side of the leather, while the enamelled 



44 EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 




// side of the stud is on the wrong side. 

I Punch all round the strip as marked in 
the diagram, pressing down a sharp fold at 
the four dotted lines with an iron. The two 
flaps must be turned over and caught down 
with the stitching to the back. A firm braid, 
or narrow strip of leather must be laid under 
the stitching. A very strong, flexible strip 
or lace of leather can be used to hang the 
case from the neck, and on this may be 
threaded beads, or it may be knotted here 
and there. The ends of this thong must be 
caught with blocks of stitches in very strong 
silk at the top of the case, and where they 
meet at the bottom these blocks must appear 
like a tight wrapping and may be ornamented 
with beads at each side. A larger bead and 
a tassel hang as a pendant below. When 
folded in four the case should measure about 
2 to 2| inches in width. The press studs 
should meet just inside the fold. This case 
may be decorated in many ways, with needle- 
weaving or other surface decoration, but it is 
well not to stitch through the leather too much 
as the whole case must be made as strong 
and compact as possible. 



No. 35. A HAND-BAG WITH INSIDE POCKETS 

The shape for this bag should be very carefully planned in brown paper 
before cutting and marking the leather. It requires a very thick, firm 
skin, and may, if desired, be lined with thin leather, or silk, or velvet pasted 



EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



45 



on. The pockets must be 
tacked into place before the 
punching is done, and their 
lower edges must be very neatly 
and strongly stitched across to 
the body of the bag with a 
strong cotton or silken thread 
to match the leather. This 
may be done with a sewing 
machine. The two sides of the 
angle X-X - - - X must be arranged 




so that their holes 
exactly correspond, sa 
also must the holes 
along W-X and X-Y. 

A thin thong of 
leather is used to lace 
this bag, and the button 
and lachetforthe strap 
must be fixed before 
seaming it together. 
The latchet is made 
of interlacing thongs of 
leather. 



46 EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



No. 36. A SQUARE CUSHION 

This cushion is made in five sections. Four for the outer square, and 
one, of another colour, for the inner one. The latter should overlap the 
outer squares about J of an inch. The joins of the outer corner-pieces 
come under the strappings of needleweaving. After punching the holes 
in the centre-piece, it must be laid over each corner-piece and dupli- 




cate holes marked out with a pencil before punching them. The holes 
for the outer seam must be punched en bloc, the four sections being tacked 
together first. The weaving of the straps of embroidery is done on a found- 
ation of thick cotton, used double in order to give a soft, full substance to 
the work. It may be made easier to weave, if a piece of thick cardboard 
be slipped under the warp threads to hold the whole out quite firmly. The 
weaving of the straps must on no account be pulled too tight, and all threads 
used must be equal in thickness. Fringes of silk or narrow braids finish 



EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 47 



off the ends of the strapping. The edges of the back of the cushion must 
be punched to tally with the front. 

No. 37. A ROUND CUSHION 

This again is decorated with needleweaving in large scallops on a 
radiating warp. These scallops are most easily marked out by drawing 
round a saucer, and the inner circles of the scallops by drawing round suc- 
cessive smaller circles, a cup and an egg-cup for instance. The dark circle 
of leather in the centre is put in place after the rest is embroidered and the 
space it covers is cut away, save for an inch or so to lie under it. This 
hole in the centre renders it easy to punch the holes for the embroidery 
warps, which otherwise would be 
difficult to reach with the punch. 

If the outer portion of the 
cushion cannot be cut in one 
piece it can easily be seamed 
under one of the four "sheaves," 
or cross bands of lines of silk 
couched on, which are carried 
right across the side band of 
contrasting leather to the back 
surface of the cushion. These 
groups, or " sheaves," of lines 
have rows of French knots at 
intervals between them. The 
smaller semicircles or scallops 
round the centre may be done 
without too much stitching into the leather by making a line of chain-stitch 
outside in rather large stitches, into every alternate one of which two 
buttonhole stitches can be made, with the buttonhole edge inwards. This 
provides the foundation for each successive row of button-stitching till the 
centre is reached. Different colours may be used in each concentric circle. 

The centre-piece of leather should be laced on over a very thick strand 
of threads to pad out the lacing. 

4 




48 EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



No. 38. A SLEEVELESS JERKIN 

This is a useful and becoming jerkin for golf, or to wear under a motor 
coat. The shape can easily be adjusted from any simple coat pattern by 
taking a portion off the shoulders of the fronts and adding it to the back, 




so that the shoulder-piece of the jerkin comes forward to the front of the 
neck, and is thus easier to fasten. The arms must be cut away at the arm- 
pits, and the side seams may either overlap below or be left open about 
1 inch and laced across with a cord. It is important to use very flexible 
leather for this garment. The edges should be punched, even if the leather 
be soft enough to stitch without it, as the punching prevents any risk of 



EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 49 



undue stretching, and it is important that no strain or pull be put on the 
edges when embroidering them. A binding may be used, or decorative 
button-stitching. A band of needleweaving finishes the shoulder where 
it fastens down to the front. Press-studs may be used beneath this por- 
tion, but if so, they should be inserted before the embroidery is done. A 
short strap is used to steady the two edges below the armhole. 

No. 39. A BABY'S COAT AND CAP 

This is made in washing chamois edged with a washing galon, or braid, 
or binding. The sleeves are cut " Raglan wise," and all seams are done 
in fish-bone stitch with a soft, thick cotton thread. Button-stitching in 
the same thread is done over the binding, which should first be tacked into 
place. The cap has an embroidered crown, the outer line of each of the 
circles on this is couched with several threads in a strand fixed down by 
a single thread. Inside this concentric rows of buttonhole stitch are sewn 
one into another. The under portion of the cap is cut as in Fig. 39 D, page 50, 
the crown being laid over this and buttonholed down to it. The side 
portion D is then set into a double band of leather, or an outer band of 
leather with alining of firm cotton material fitted to the head. A fringed 
tassel or cockade of leather may be set at the side to cover the seam (E). 

No. 40. A CHAMOIS WAISTCOAT WITH SLEEVES 

This is made to wear under a motorcoat and is lined with thin China 
or tussore silk. The leather facing is not caught in at the armholes, as 
it has a tendency to tear with movement of the arm, so that a space of 
rather less than an inch is left, showing the silk lining. The leather is also 
cut away on the under-arm portion of the sleeve and at the armpit on 
either side of the side seam in order to give ventilation at this part. The 
chamois is bound round the armholes and at the top of the sleeve with a 
narrow silk binding, securely tacked into place and then embroidered 
down to the silk lining with tiny petal or picot stitches in silk. The silk 
lining may be cut with wide turnings down the fronts and wrists, and at 
the neck and lower hem, and these turnings brought out and laid over the 
chamois outside, and again fixed down with picot-stitching. Cords may 



EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 51 



be used for the latchets, 
or narrow strips of the 
lining silk with the edges 
doubled in, and seamed 
over a piping cord, the 
ends of each latchet are 
finished in a spiral twist. 
The seams of the sleeves 
and shoulders and under- 
arm can be stitched by 
machine. 

No. 41. GLOVES 

The shapes for gloves 
are now so easily projCured 
from various makers that 
it is not necessary to give 
more than the very sim- 
plest form of diagram and 
directions. Gloves are 
not difficult to do, but, 
nevertheless, they demand 
the greatest accuracy possible in both cutting and stitching. The dia- 
gram given on page 53 shows the simplest form the writer has been able to 
evolve with any prospect of good fit, but it must be borne in mind that 
human hands are as variable in characteristics as human faces and that 
no shape will suit all hands. 

The most elegant gloves since gloves were made have always been of 
the long gauntlet shape without buttons, and these are also undoubtedly 
the least troublesome to make. 

Roughly speaking, the nine or ten parts of a woman's glove take up 
about a square foot of leather. It is important that the pattern be cut so 
that the length of the glove goes " lengthways," and not across the skin. 
The " fourchettes " or side-pieces which join the front and back of the 




52 EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



glove between the fingers may be cut from the thinner portions of the skin, 
so also the little gussets. The strongest part of the glove should be at the 
gauntlet, as this is the part which takes all the strain of pulling on. When 
a satisfactory shape has been found, which fits the wearer, it saves a great 
deal of time if it is cut out in thin " Vulmos " board. This may be had in 
large sheets from Messrs. Mosses & Mitchell, Golden Acre, London. It 
is an admirably firm and tough material for cutting out any patterns which 
are in frequent use. Gloves cut in the Vulmos must have sufficient space 
left between the fingers to insert a pen or pencil down easily. 

The first thing to do after drawing out the pattern of one hand is to 
immediately reverse the " Vulmos " pattern on the leather, and draw it 
out for the other hand ; this saves endless confusion. It is also wise to 
mark on the Vulmos pattern the letters R and L, for right and left hand 
sides respectively. After marking out the glove and cutting it away from 
the leather, do not cut out the fingers at once, but make a hole a little bit 
inside the oval for the thumb -hole, and carefully cut it exactly on the line ; 
next cut the thumb and the thumb-gusset if it has one. Fold the thumb 
double from the middle angle between the curves at the top, and taking a 
strong, cotton thread (Clark's coton a broder No. 18 is best), make a good, 
neat knot inside the thumb and stitch back and forth through both ply of 
leather, taking care that each side has even regular stitches about tV inch 
from the edge, and with about five stitches on each side to the inch. It 
is not good to make the stitches too small (41 A). 

Carry on the line of stitches till you reach the first joint of the thumb. 
Try the thumb on and see that it fits, and at this point, or a little lower 
if its width allows, lay the point of the thumb-gusset underneath the 
thumb-piece with the edge of the thumb-piece overlapping it about J of 
an inch. Carry on the stitching to the bottom of the curve, and fasten 
off the thread on the wrong side into one of the previous stitches. Now 
start again at the head of the gusset ; and try on the thumb again and see 
how much overlap the gusset allows, and carry on the stitching as before 
on the other side of the gusset, fastening off as before. Next take the 
completed thumb at the middle of the gusset, and lay it under the edge 
of the thumb-hole at the top of the oval. Lay it carefully in place and see 



EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 53 



again how much overlap is permissible. The edges of the thumb must 
always lie under the palm portion of the glove, and the extra overlapping 




should go to the lower part of the thumb-hole. Stitch 
round this as before and fasten off. 

Now cut out the first fourchette, which is easily 
distinguished from the rest by the wider curves for 
the first finger, and cut out one of the six finger gussets. Be sure to 
cut accurately to the very bottom of the nick between the fingers. 
Open out this nick and lay the opened slit along under the curved 



54 EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



side of the gusset and stitch it along and fasten off. Now start at the 
middle angle of the top of the first finger, folding it exactly as the 
thumb-piece was folded, and carry the stitches just over the dome of 




the finger. Now take your fourchette and see that it has the gusset side 
towards the palm of the hand, and its point to the back of the hand. Set 
the tip of the first finger fourchette edge to edge with the back of the finger 
and stitch on down the finger, watching all the time to see that there is no 



EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 55 



puckering or gathering up of the leather, and measuring constantly to see 
that the lower point of the fourchette meets the end of the slit between 
the fingers. Take one or two extra stitches at the bottom of the fourchette 
and again, with constant adjusting and measuring, carry on till the tip of 
the second side reaches near to the dome of the second finger. It is a good 
thing to complete the stitching of the whole back of the fingers before the 
palm is done. Then, before 
making the side seam from the 
fourth finger down to the wrist, 
the embroidering of the " points " 
on the back of the hands must 
be done. If it is elaborate it is 
best done before the gloves are 
cut out. This portion of the gloves 
used at one time to be most ela- 
borately and richly decorated, and 
though for a long time there was little but a row or two of chain- stitch- 
ing put there, the fashion is returning to old usage, and there is a new 
lease of life coming for decoration on gloves, and a great scope for new 
ideas and designs, both on the back and at the wrists, is now possible. 
The gauntlets may be embroidered, or applications of different leather 
set on in straps or Vandykes, fringes, and scallops of leather. Fur or laced 
edgings may all be used. Minute beads also make very beautiful decora- 
tion. Wedding gloves may have initials and date entwined upon them 
in gold and pearls. 

No. 42. DESIGNS FOR THE POINTS OF GLOVES 

Most of these designs are fairly simple to draw out on the leather, and 
are easy to stitch. It is important to remember that stitches on leather 
must be very elastic, and must not be massed too close together The 
most usual device is that marked A, consisting of one centre line of chain- 
stitch surrounded by another, possibly of a contrasting colour (thick, 
twisted, floss silk or Clark's coton a broder No. 18), is best for this sort 
of work. 




EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 57 



Another very simple device is B, which is one waved line of chain- 
stitching overlapping another, and forming a chain with open links. 

C is done by a perpendicular series of picot-stitches with another con- 
trasting stitch of the same kind inside each, and a row of French knots 
between the rows of picots. 

D is simply three lines of herring-bone with a little back-stitch over 
every cross. 

E is made with five lines of knot or snail- trail stitch headed by petal- 
stitches, one inside the other. Smaller petal-stitches are set between the 
lines. 

F is done with a simple cross-stitch design. 

G is done with petal-stitched leaves on a knot-stitched stem, the flowers 
at the top being of satin-stitch and petal- stitches. 

H, a particularly effective pattern has satin-stitched, square blocks, 
surrounded with chain-stitch, the " rays " of petal-stitch and a border of 
French knots. 

I is the most elaborate in design. A large flower of petal and button- 
hole-stitch, its calyx satin-stitch and the curving stems in back-stitch with 
petal-stitched leaves. 

No. 43. HAT AND HEAD BANDS 

These need practically no explanation beyond the illustrations. 

"A " is very suitable to make out of scraps, and each oval disc may be 
of a different but harmonious colour. The discs are button-stitched round 
and afterwards linked together with long stitches of thick silk which forms 
th© warp for solid needleweaving and thus makes a series of embroidered 
links to combine the whole. 

B " has a solid mass of rich colours in needleweaving across the front. 
The pointed ends can be buttoned or press-studded together beneath the 
hair at the back. 

C makes a particularly effective hat-band, and if rich colouring is used 
the lunette in front has an appearance like a rose window in a church. 
Three series of punched semicircles are necessary for this, as the radiating 
stitches spread wider and require more threads to weave on. 



68 EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 




D is a little sports cap of pierced leather. The crown can be cut from 
any milliner's shape of the required close-fitting size. It is then carefully 
ruled off in squares and cut, if possible, with a very sharp knife on a sheet 



EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 59 



of glass. The ends of the leather round the edges of the oval must be set 
closely into a band, and if need be, tapered slightly. This cap requires a 
very flexible leather. The discs over the ears are of needleweaving. 



No. 44. GIRDLES 



These may be made in so many charming ways that the merest sug- 
gestions should bring forth infinite variety. 

44 A shows a plain band 44 A 
with an embroidered motif 
to fasten it. This is decor- 
ated with needleweaving 
and handsome tassels. 

B shows a girdle with a 
little hanging pocket fastened 
on at the side with press- 
studs. This girdle can well 
be made out of various 
scraps of leather, but great 
care should be taken that 
the strappings which link 
the pieces together lie evenly 
and firmly. 

C is another excellent 
way of using smaU scraps. 
Each separate link has three 
perforated slits, and through 
these the long ends of the 
pieces are run and caught 
through a bead or rolled 
into a close knot. 




60 EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



No. 45. A BLOTTER AND A WRITING-CASE 



Blotters and cases seem at first appearance unusually simple things 
to make, but a little practice rather proves that they require almost pro- 
fessional skill to give a thoroughly satis- 
factory result. 

The examples given make as steady 
and firm pieces of work as can be got 
without bookbinders' tools and machin- 
ing. 

A and B show the writing-case, which 
consists of five pockets stitched on a heavy 
leather back. The main difiiculty in 
this piece of work is to punch the holes 
across the back, very few punches having 
a long enough arm to reach so far 
across material without creasing it. 

The back should, therefore, be 
creased very sharply at the bases of the 
two centre pockets and tacked so as to 
keep the crease till a row of holes has 
been punched through the two ply of 
leather. A row of holes must be punched 
along the bottom of each pocket to tally 
exactly with the double rows. The 
pockets may be sewn on with cross 
stitches to the outside of the case, and 
straight stitches inside. The double 
pocket for envelopes should have its 
corners " boxed " as in the sachet No. 26. 
Each pocket must have its upper edge 
overcast or buttonholed before setting 
it on the back. The flap over the pocket at the lower end is cut in one 
with the centre pocket above it. A strap with press-studs must be 
fixed on the back. 




EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 61 



Great care must be taken when planning this case to allow plenty of 
" space " for folding between the pockets. Bear in mind the size of the 
case when every pocket is full. 




C shows a blotting pad with side-pockets. This requires a foundation 
of thick, heavy millboard, one for the centre, and another to stiffen the side- 




pockets. It must also have a considerable space, or slack portion allowed 
between blotter and pockets for folding. An outer pocket to hold envelopes 



62 EMBROIDERED AND LACED LEATHER WORK 



and pen is shown on the end pocket. These must be fixed into place before 
the case is put together. The outside corners of the pocket flaps are decorated 
with squares of needle weaving, and a small strap with press-studs is fixed ' 
across the two pockets to close it. The lower portion of these studs must 
be fixed to the foundation before the pockets are put in. 

MATERIALS FOR STITCHING LEATHER ARTICLES 

Threads 

Rickard's, " Bengal Knitting Silks," artificial silk. 
Pearsall's, Twisted Floss, Antyka, Knitting, real silk. 
Clark's, Anchor Flox, Stranded Cotton, Coton a Broder. 
Braids, various. 

Leathers 

Russell & Sons, Ltd., Hitchin, Herts. 

J. Beach & Sons, Ltd., Hackbridge, Surrey. 

G. E. Taylor & Sons, 12, Colston Avenue, Bristol. 

Glen Bros., 10, Eagle Court, St. John's Lane, London, E.C.I. 

R. G. Munn, Netherwood, Dorman's Park, Surrey. 

Reginald Pullman, Hertford, Herts. 

George & Co., 2Ia, Noel Street, Oxford Street, W.l. 

The Dryad Cane Works, St. Nicholas Street, Leicester. 

T. C. Newman, 24, Charlotte Street, Portsmouth. 

Tools 

Long, sharp scissors. 

Chenille needles, any good make. 

Foot rule. Triangle rules. 

Punch pUers, with large and small " bits (Russell & Sons, Ltd., Hitchin). 
Press-studs and stud pHers (Russell & Sons, Ltd., Hitchin). 
T. C. Newman, 24, Charlotte Street, Portsmouth. 
Vulmos, for cutting patterns (Messrs. Mosses & Mitchell, Golden Acre, 
London). 

Printed in Great Britain by Butler & Tanner Ltd., Frome and London 



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